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15 Februari 2009

Fomula Makanan Rumusan

Fomula Makanan Rumusan

Di sini disertakan contoh formula makanan rumusan untuk pelbagai spesies ikan dan udang dalam fomat asal bahasa inggeris ,supaya tidak tersalah terjemah.Saya akan cuba terjemahkan dengan bahan mentah tempatan dalam masa yang terdekat ini.Terima kasih dan harap maaf.

Formula yang di beri ini hanya lah sebagai garis panduan sahaja.Sila gunakan/gantikan bahan mentah tempatan yang boleh di perolehi dan buat secara “try and error’ jangan mudah berpuas hati jika berjaya…tingkat kan lagi keberkesanan nya ingat,

‘ HANYA PENTERNAK SAHAJA YANG TAHU MAKANAN TERBAIK UNTUK TERNAKAN NYA ‘

1. Atlantic Salmon:

Wet Food Mixture

(UK)

(%)

Industrial Clupeid

45.0

Saithe Offal

25.0

White Fish Offal

20.0

Vitamin Meal 1/(Thiamin added)

10.0

100.0

Calculated analysis: 23.3% cl; 47.8 cp; 21.7% carbohydrate, on dry matter basis. Source: Sedgwick, 1982

1/Composition unspecified. Includes 1% Carboxymethycellulose or Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose as binder.

2. Pacific Salmon:

Moist (Oregon) Starter Mash (%)

(USA)

Herring Meal

48.0

Wheat Germ Meal

10.0

Dried Whey

10.0

Vitamin Mix No. 7

1.5

Tuna Viscera

10.0

Turbot, Salmon viscera or Herring

10.0

Herring Oil

10.0

Choline Chloride

0.5

100.0

Source: Piper et al, 1982

3. Trout:

Dry Fingerling (PR 6) (%)

(USA)

Fish Meal (60% CP)

34.0

Soybean Meal

10.0

Maize Gluten Meal

6.0

Wheat Middlings

19.3

Dried Brewers Yeast

5.0

Dried Whey

10.0

Dried Fermentation Solubles

8.0

Alfalfa Meal

3.0

Soybean Oil

4.0

Vitamin Mix No. 8

0.4

Choline Chloride (50%)

0.2

Mineral Mix No. 3

0.1

100.0

Source: Piper et al., 1982

4. Rainbow Trout:

Moist Pellets (Solberg) (%)

(Denmark)

Raw Minced Industrial Fish

50.0

High-Fat Fish Meal

21.2

Extracted Soy Meal

22.2

Fish Oil (with 0.2% Raloquin Antioxidant)

3.0

Lecithin

2.0

Potassium Iodide

0.2

Sodium Chloride

0.24

Dicalcium Phosphate

0.136

Thiamin

0.02

Vitamin E

0.004

Alginate H 120 (Binder)

1.0

100.0

Source: Sedgwick, 1982

5. Trout:

Dry Fry/Fingerling Feed (%)

(Mexico)

Extruded Whole Soybeans

68.94

Fish Meal

20.00

Maize Gluten

10.00

DL-Methionine

0.26

L-Lysine

0.10

Vitamin Premix No. 5

0.60

Mineral Premix No. 1

0.10

100.00

Source: Chow, 1982c

6. Channel Catfish(ikan keli):

Dry Pellets (%)

(USA)

Menhaden Fish Meal (60% CP)

12.0

Blood Meal (80% CP)

5.0

Feather Meal

5.0

Ext. Soybean Meal

22.5

Dec. Cottonseed Meal

12.5

Dried Distillers Solubles

8.0

Rice Bran

20.0

Wheat Shorts

10.0

Dehydrated Alfalfa (17% CP)

3.5

Iodized Salt

1.0

Vitamin Premix 1/

0.5

100.0

Source: Lee, 1981 1/Details not available

7. Channel Catfish:

32% Protein Extruded Dry Pellet 2/

(USA)

(% of diet)

(% of diet)

1

7

Menhaden Fish Meal

8.0

-

Soybean Meal (48% CP)

48.2

-

Soybean Meal (44% CP)

-

47.5

Corn (Maize)

29.2

30.0

Rice Bran or Wheat Middlings

10.0

-

Meat and Bone Meal

-

15.0

Dried Whey

-

2.5

Dicalcium Phosphate

1.0

1.25

Trace Mineral and Vitamin Mix 3/

-

N.S. 4/

Organic Pellet Binder

2.0

-

Fat 3/ (Sprayed After Pelleting)

1.5

-

Trace Mineral Mix 3/

0.05

-

Vitamin Mix 3/

0.05

-

Coated Vitamin C

0.038

-

Source: NRC, 1983 2/Diets do not add to 100% 3/Details not specified 4/Amount unspecified

8. Catfish (Clarias & Ophicephalus spp)

(Makanan Rumusan Ikan Keli):

Dry Diet(%)

(Thailand)

Fish meal

56.0

Rice Bran

12.0

Peanut Meal

12.0

Alpha Starch

14.0

Fish Oil

4.0

Vitamin/Mineral Premix 1/

1.6

Basfin (Binder)

0.4

100.0

Source: Tacon and Beveridge, 1981 1/Details not available

9. Brackishwater catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus)

Fry Feed (%)

(Côte d'Ivoire)

1

2

Fish meal

70

50

Wheat Bran

10

10

Maize Meal

10

10

Cottonseed Oil Cake

5

5

Soybean Oil Cake

-

20

Vitamin Mix 1/

2

2

Cod Liver Oil

3

3

100

100

Source: Dia and Oteme, 1986 1/Details not available

10. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

KELI AFRIKA

Growers Diet (%)

(Central African Republic)

Dry Brewery Waste

10.00

Rice Bran

15.00

Maize

6.25

Cottonseed Oil Cake

25.00

Groundnut Cake

25.00

Sesame Oil Cake

10.00

Blood Meal

5.00

Vitamin/Mineral Mix 1/

0.25

Dicalcium phosphate

1.00

Bone Meal

1.00

Salt

0.50

Palm Oil

1.00

100.00

Source: Viveen et al., 1985 1/Details not available

11. Catfish (Silurus glanis):

Moist (%)

(Hungary)

Pasteurized Fish Flesh Waste

60.0

Wheat Mill Run

12.0

Reground Rice Bran

10.0

Maize

12.0

Distillers Dried Yeast

4.0

Vitamin Mix No. 6

0.8

Mineral Mix No. 2

1.2

100.0

Source: Halver, 1982

12. Common Carp, Channel Catfish & Tilapia spp:

Dry Growers Feed (%)

(Mexico)

Extruded Whole Soybeans

54.00

Sunflower Seed Meal

11.07

Maize Germ Meal

7.34

Sorghum

15.00

Wheat Bran

3.00

Molasses

5.00

Calcium orthophosphate

1.35

Limestone Powder

2.54

Vitamin Mix No. 5

0.60

Mineral Mix No. 1

0.10

100.00

Source: Chow, 1982c

13. Common Carp

(Makanan Rumusan Ikan Kap)

Test Fry Diets

(Egypt)

(% Composition)

1

2

3

4

5

Imported Fish Meal (CP 70%)

20.0

10.0

-

-

-

Ext. Soybean Meal

15.0

10.0

-

-

-

Meat Meal (CP 45%)

20.0

15.0

45.0

10.0

-

Poultry by-products

-

15.0

-

25.0

35.0

Ext. Cottonseed Meal

15.0

20.0

20.0

20.0

20.0

Ext. Rice Bran

9.9

19.6

14.1

23.8

23.8

Maize

20.0

10.0

-

-

-

Maize Gluten Meal

-

-

20.0

20.0

20.0

Table Salt

-

-

0.2

0.2

0.2

L-Lysine

-

0.3

0.6

0.9

0.9

Vitamin Mix 1/

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Source: Chow, 1982b

1/A poultry vitamin mix providing (per kg diet): A 5 000 I.U.; D2 600 I.U., B1 10 mg, B2 20 mg, Pantothenic acid 30 mg, Niacin 50 mg, Pyridoxine 2 mg, Vitamin C 200 mg.

14. Common Carp:

Pond Diet (25% CP) (%)

(Israel)

Menhaden Fish Meal

15.00

Soybean Meal (44% CP)

17.00

Wheat

10.00

Sorghum

56.85

DL-Methionine

0.15

Vitamin/Trace Element Mix No. 12

1.00

100.00

Source: Viola et al., 1982

15. Indian Carps:

Dry Fry Test Feed(%)

(India)

Groundnut Cake

61.0

Rice Bran

37.0

Dicalcium Phosphate

1.5

Table Salt

0.3

Mineral Mix No. 4

0.1

Vitamin Mix No. 9

0.1

100.0

Source: Chow, 1982a

16. Indian Carps:

Dry Fry Test Diet(%)

(India)

Groundnut Cake

20.0

Sesame Cake

35.0

Fish Meal

10.0

Rice Bran

34.0

Dicalcium Phosphate

0.5

Table Salt

0.3

Mineral Mix No. 4

0.1

Vitamin Mix No. 9

0.1

100.0

Source: Chow, 1982a

17. Indian Carps:

Pond Mixtures 1/ 2/

(Indian Sub-Continent)

Groundnut Oil Cake

50%

or Cottonseed Oil Cake

50%

or Rapeseed Oil Cake

50%

Rice Polishings

50%

or Rice Bran

50%

Source: Author's observation 1/Not pelleted 2/Sen and Chatterjee (1979) reported that fry of rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and Catla (Catla catla), fed a 1:1 mixture of groundnut oil cake and rice polishings grew better if a cobalt supplement of 0.01 mg/day/fish was presented, particularly in the case of rohu.

18. Common Carp and Tilapia Hybrids (T. nilotica × T. aurea)

Dry Growers Pellets 3/(Israel)

' Standard' (%)

'High Protein' (%)

Fish Meal (CP 70%)

25

35

Sorghum Meal

55

45

Wheat Meal

20

20

100

100

Source: Viola and Arieli, 1982 3/No supplementary vitamins or minerals were used.

19. Tilapia (T. nilotica) and Common Carp

Fingerling A (%)

Test Diets B (%)

(Egypt)

Ext. Cottonseed Meal

53.0

-

Ext. Soybean Meal

-

50.0

Ext. Rice Bran 4/

43.0

46.2

Bone Meal 4/

3.0

3.5

Table Salt

0.2

0.2

DL-Methionine

0.3

-

L-Lysine

0.4

-

Vitamin Mix 5/

0.1

0.1

100.0

100.0

Source: Chow, 1982b

4/These two ingredients were boiled with water equivalent to 100% of the whole diet to promote a binding capability. Other ingredients were added, the mixture extruded though the 2mm die of a mincer, sun dried and crumbled.

5/A poultry vitamin mix providing (per kg diet): A 5 000 I.U., D2 600 I.U., B1 10 mg, B2 20 mg, Pantothenic acid 30 mg, Niacin 50 mg, Pyridoxine 2 mg, Vitamin C 200 mg.

20. Tilapia (T. mossambica):

Cake Feed (%)

(Philippines)

Rice Bran

70.0

Chopped Snails

30.0

100.0

Source: Pullin and Lowe-McConnell, 1982

21. Tilapia (T. Mossambica and T. nilotica):

(Philippines) (%)

Rice Bran

77.0

Fish Meal

23.0

100.0

Source: ?

22. Tilapia (T. nilotica):

(Central African Republic) (%)

Cottonseed oil cake

82.0

Wheat Flour

8.0

Cattle Blood Meal

8.0

Bicalcium Phosphate

2.0

100.0

Source: ?

23. Tilapia (T. mossambica):

(%)

(Sri Lanka)

Rice Bran

74.59

Coconut oil cake

18.65

Cattle Blood

4.66

Wheat Flour

2.10

100.00

Source: ?

24. Tilapia (In Freshwater):

Dry Feeds (Experimental) 1/

(UK)

Animal Size

(Makanan Rumusan Talapia)

Fry-0.5g

0.5-35g

35g-market

(%)

(%)

(%)

Brown Fishmeal

30

10

5

Hydrolysed Feather Meal

15

5

3

Meat Meal

5

5

5

Soybean Meal

5

12

4

Groundnut Meal

10

12

10

Cottonseed Meal

5

20

20

Rice Bran

10

20

37

Dried Distillers Solubles

10

10

10

Vitamin Premix No. 10

2

2

2

Mineral Premix 2/

4

4

4

Lipid Supplement 2/

4

-

-

100

100

100

Source: Jauncey and Ross, 1982 1/The authors state that these formulations have certain amino acid deficiencies. 2/Type not specified.

25. Tilapia (Tilapia discolor)

Experimental Feeds for Cage Culture (3-10 g size) (%)

(Ghana)

1

2

Fish Meal

45.00

-

Brewery Waste

19.00

12.16

Maize Bran

31.00

20.27

Cowpea

-

43.92

Groundnut Cake

-

18.92

Starch

5.00

4.73

100.00

100.00

Source: Oduro-Boateng, 1986

26. Marine Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

:Makanan Rumusan Udang Marin

Grow-out Feed

(Malaysia)

Semi-moist (%)

Dry(%)

Fish Meal (55% CP)

10.0

16.0

Shrimp Head Meal

15.0

24.0

Wheat Pollards

36.75

58.0

Vitamin Mix No. 3

1.25

2.0

Water

37.0

-

100.00

100.00

Source: Chow, 1984

27. Marine Shrimp (Penaeus monodon):

Dry Grow-out Pellets (%)

(Indonesia)

Squid Head Meal

10.0

Fish Meal

20.0

Soybean Cake

34.0

Shrimp Meat

24.0

Wheat Flour

8.0

Aquamix (Vitamin Mix 1/

2.0

Kelco Alginate

2.0

100.0

Source: Manik et al., 1980

28. Marine Shrimp (Penaeus monodon & P. merguiensis):

Dry Pellets (%)

(Malaysia)

Fish Meal

27.0

Meat & Bone Meal

10.0

Soybean Meal

15.0

Exp. Sesame Cake Meal

5.0

Exp. Groundnut Meal

5.0

Maize

4.0

Coconut Cake

10.0

Extracted Rice Bran

10.0

Leaf Meal

5.0

Tapioca

8.0

Vitamin Mix No. 4

1.0

[+BHT 0.02% and Ethoxyquin 0.015%]

100.0

Source: Kanazawa, 1984

29. Marine Shrimp:

Practical Pond Diet 2/ (%)

(USA)

Fish Meal (61% CP)

15.0

Ext. Soybean Meal

36.0

Shrimp Waste Meal

10.0

High-Gluten Wheat Flour

20.0

Rice Bran

12.0

Fat 1/

2.0

Binder (Hemicellulose or Lignin Sulphonate: by-products of wood processing)

2.0

Vitamin Mix 1/

0.5

Trace Mineral Mix 1/

0.5

Dicalcium Phosphate

1.0

Coated Vitamin C

0.038

Source: NRC, 1983 1/No details available 2/Diet does not add to 100%

30. Marine Shrimp (various spp):

Moist/Dry Pellets 1/

(Bangladesh)

1

2

(%)

(%)

Animal viscera

60

-

'A' grade fish meal

-

40

Rice bran

20

35

Wheat flour

20

25

100

100

Source: Karim, 1986 1/These moist diets were fed moist or sun-dried, stored and used later. This was the pioneer shrimp, feed in Bangladesh.

31. Freshwater Prawns:

Makanan Rumusan Udang Galah

Dry Pellets

(Thailand)

1

2

(%)

(%)

Fish Oil

3.0

3.0

Shrimp Meal

25.0

10.0

Fish Meal

10.0

4.0

Peanut Meal

5.0

2.0

Soybean meal

5.0

2.0

Broken Rice

25.5

39.0

Rice Bran

25.5

39.0

Guar Gum

1.0

1.0

100.0

100.0

Source: New and Singholka, 1982

32. Freshwater Prawns:

Dry Pellets (%)

(Indonesia)

Fish Meal

20.0

Soybean Meal

9.0

Rice Bran

45.0

Coconut Oil Cake

20.0

Tapioca

5.0

Pfizer premix A 2/

1.0

100.0

Source: Manik, 1976 2/No details available.

33. Freshwater Prawns:

Dry Pellets(%)

(Indonesia)

Shrimp Head Meal

30.0

Soybean Meal

4.0

Rice Bran

35.0

Coconut Oil Cake

20.0

Tapioca

9.0

Agar

1.0

Pfizer Premix A 1/

1.0

100.0

Source: Manik, 1976

34. Freshwater Prawns:

Dry Pellets

(Hawaii)

Ingredients

Waldron's Broiler Starter(%)

Waldron's Game-cock Pellets(%)

Waldron's Prawn No 1. (%)

Waldron's Prawn No. 2. (%)

Alfalfa

-

-

4.00

4.00

Corn

53.25

50.25

56.75

56.75

Cottonseed Meal

10.00

15.75

-

-

Soybean Meal

24.25

20.50

27.00

25.00

Meat and Bone Meal

7.00

7.00

11.00

8.00

Tuna Meal

-

-

-

5.00

Vitamin Mix 1/

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.25

Mineral Mix 1/

1.25

1.25

-

-

Molasses

3.00

4.00

-

-

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

Source: Corbin, et al., 1986

35. Freshwater Prawns:

Grow-out feed

(Malaysia)

Semi-Moist(%)

Dry (%)

Fish Meal (55%) CP)

8.00

13.0

Wheat Pollards

30.00

47.0

Rice Bran

11.75

19.0

Soybean Meal

12.00

19.0

Vitamin Mix No. 3

1.25

2.0

Water

37.00

100.0

100.00

Source: Chow, 1984 1/No details available

36. Pacu:

Test Diet

(Fingerlings)

(Brazil)

1

2

(%)

(%)

Anchovy Meal (65% CP)

20.0

15.0

Soybean Meal (44% CP)

35.0

35.0

Orange Pulp Meal (5% CP)

20.0

10.0

Orange Seed Meal (30% CP)

-

10.0

Wheat Bran

24.0

29.0

Vitamin/Mineral Mix No. 1

1.0

1.0

100.0

100.0

Source: Personal communication from K.W. Chow to F.A. Pagan-Font, 18/3/83

37. Milkfish:

Steamed Water Stable Cake %

(Indonesia)

Fresh Fish (or dried fish plus water equivalent)

10

Fresh Cassava (or dried cassava plus water equivalent)

15

Copra (coconut cake)

12

Rice Bran

25

Tahu Waste (90% H2O) 1/

23

Soybeans, Peanuts, leaves or similar

5

Water

10

100

Source: Hastings, 1975 1/Soybean cake waste

38. Rabbit Fish:

Dry Pellets (%)

(Malaysia)

Fish Meal

15.0

Soybean Meal

25.0

Groundnut Meal

5.0

Rice Bran

26.5

Copra Cake Meal

10.0

Leaf Meal

5.0

Wheat Flour

8.0

Corn Meal

5.0

Vitamin Mix No. 4 2/

0.5

100.0

Source: Abu Hassan et al., 1984 2/Although Vitamin Mix No. 4 was used at 0.5% the project consultant recommended Vitamin Mix No. 2 to be used at 1%.

39. Sea Bass:

MAKANANAN RUMUSAN SIAKAP

Juvenile Test Diets

(Malaysia)

1

2

3

(%)

(%)

(%)

Trash Fish

50.0

50.0

-

Fish Meal

5.0

7.0

20.0

Wheat Pollards

35.5

29.5

30.5

Soybean Meal

7.0

11.0

7.0

Vitamin Mix No. 3

2.5

2.5

2.5

Water

-

-

40.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Source: Chow, 1984

40. Sea Bass and Grouper:

Makanan Rumusan Ikan Kerapu

Moist Pellets (%)

(Malaysia)

Freshly Minced Fish

50.0

Fish Meal

17.5

Soybean

7.5

Rice Bran

17.0

Groundnut Meal

5.0

Wheat Flour

2.5

Vitamin Mix No. 4 1/

0.5

100.0

Source: Abu Hassan et al., 1984 1/Although vitamin mix no. 4 was used at 0.5%, the project consultant recommended vitamin mix no. 2 to be used at 1%.

41. Sea bass (Lates calcarifer)

MAKANAN IKAN SIAKAP

Juvenile Test Diet (%)

(Malaysia)

Fresh trash fish

49.0

Chinese extracted soybean meal

19.0

Wheat pollards

15.5

Thai fish meal (55% CP)

10.0

Cod liver oil

3.0

Vitamin mix 2/

2.5

Fresh whole squid

1.0

100.0

Source: New, 1986b 2/ 10 g Roche vitamin concentrate No. 428/3, 20 g Chinese vitamin C, 970 g wheat pollards.

42. Sea Bass and Grouper:

Semi-Moist Grow-Out Feed (%)

(Indonesia)

Ground Fresh Fish

46

Fish Meal (Local - 56% Protein)

25

Soymeal (Ext.)

10

Meat and Bone Meal (Australian)

4

Wheat Pollards

4

Fish Oil (Local)

3

Seaweed Binder 1/

5

Mussel Meal

2

Vitamin Mix No. 12

1

100

Source: Meyers, 1987b

43. Finfish (Sea Bass and Grouper)

Experimental Broodstock Diet (%)

(Indonesia)

Fresh Ground Fish

46

Fish Meal (Local)

20

Ext. Soybean Meal

12

Wheat Pollards

4

Fresh Mussel Meat

4

Fish Oil

4

Soybean Lecithin

3

Vitamin Mix No. 12

2

Seaweed Binder 1/

5

100

Source: Meyers, 1987b 1/See Meyers (1987b) for method of preparation

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7 ulasan:

Tanpa Nama berkata...

salam cikgu, macamana nak dapatan bahan mentah kat area selangor?

CikGu Naim berkata...

salam,
cuba bertanya di laman Biacarajutawan.com .disana ramai penternak/pengeluar dari seluruh malaysia.mungkin ini dapat membantu.

shida berkata...

salam,
boleh saya dapatkan formula makanan rumusan ikan dalam kuantiti yg tepat, iaitu dlm gram/kg. terutamanya pellet di pasaran Malaysia

CikGu Naim berkata...

Salam Shida,
Cuba Check email sdr,TQ

eykin berkata...

saya nak tanya..saya kena buat final year project untuk degree saya..apa tajuk yg sesuai pada pndangan tuan/?

CikGu Naim berkata...

Salam,nak tanya ini eykin yang sama ke yang bertanya di FB?

eykin berkata...

ye cikgu..