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30 Jun 2009

Specifikasi Diet

Didalam topik yang lalu telah di nyatakan bagi setiap species ikan memerlukan diet nutrisi yang berlainan di antara satu sama lain.Di dalam topic ini akan di nyatakan nutrisi minima bagi setiap spesies ikan yang di nyatakan itu.Makanan rumusan yang di buat hendaklah berasaskan nutrisi makanan yang sama jenis ,sama ada ikan ini jenis kanivarous atau omivarous dan sebagai nya walaupun

1.Salmon dan trout ( kanivorous)

The major dietary requirements of salmon and trout, which are similar, can be summarized as follows:

Lipid 1/

starter feeds (fry)

15%

grower feeds (fingerling)

12%

production feeds (older fish)

9%

Protein

starter feeds

50%

grower feeds

40%

production feeds

35%

Amino Acids

lysine (fingerling feeds) 2/

5%

methionine (fingerling feeds) 2/

4% (in absence of cystine)

Available Phosphorus

>0.8%

DE

2 800-3 300 kcal/kg

Other Components

see 'further reading'

Essential Components:

fish meal 3/; at least 1% inclusion of n-3 series fatty acids; natural or artificial carotenoids

Negative Factors:

non-protein nitrogen (e.g. urea); high carbohydrate levels (> 20%); high fibre levels (> 6%); rancid lipids.

1/Commercial trout and salmon diets tend to have higher (up to 20%) lipid levels than those quoted here 2/As a % of protein. 3/Work on partial or complete replacement of this expensive ingredient is proceeding. Synthetic amino acids may be used to balance vegetable proteins.

2.Ikan keli ( omnivorous)

2a. Channel Catfish

The nutrient requirements of channel catfish, like those of salmon and trout, have been the subject of much study in the U.S.A. because of the commercial importance of this species. They are summarized as follows:

Lipid

10% (experimental) 8% (commercial)

fry to fingerlings

35-40%

fingerlings to sub-adults

25-35%

Protein

adults and broodfish

28-32%

Carbohydrate

higher levels tolerated than by salmon and trout

Amino Acids

lysine

5.1%) % of dietary

methionine (cystine absent)

2.3%) protein

Available Phosphorus

0.5%

Salt

0.5-1.0%

DE

2 700-3 100 kcal/kg

Other Components

see 'further reading'

Essential Components

not less than 7.5% fish meal (in intensive feeds; soybean is adequate substitute in feeds for extensive culture); not less than 14% animal protein.

Negative Factors:

rancid lipids; high fibre levels (>8-10%); more than 15% cottonseed meal.

2b. Species Ikan Keli Lain

The specific nutritional requirements for other catfish species are little known. Diets for Siluris glanis developed in Hungary have been based on the requirements for channel catfish

Individual ingredients, such as boiled tilapia flesh, Moina spp., and fresh chub mackerel viscera, appear Co be good feeds for the fry of Clarias batrachus. Commercially produced pellets have given good results in Thailand in the pond culture of Clarias spp., compared to the traditional 9:1 trash fish:rice bran mixture. Compounded experimental diets for the fry of Clarias macrocephalus in Thailand were composed of fish meal, rice bran, fish oil, peanut meal and alpha starch, having approximately 10% lipid and 35.7% protein (on DM basis).

3. Carps

3a Common Carp

Of the carp species, most nutritional studies have been conducted on the omnivorous common carp. The known dietary requirements are summarized as follows:

Lipid

up to 18% (higher levels spare protein)

Protein

25-38%

Amino Acids

lysine

5.7%)% of dietary

methionine (cystine absent)

3.1%) protein

Available Phosphorus

0.6-0.7%

DE

2 700-3 100 kcal/kg

Other Components

see 'further reading'

Essential Components:

at least 1% of each of n-3 and n-6 series fatty acids; high lipid diets for oogenisis in broodfish.

Negative Factors:

non-protein nitrogen: there is some evidence that carp may be able to utilize this (this is disputed, however); rancid fat; high lipid or carbohydrate after ovulation of broodfish.

3b.Indian and Chinese Carps

fry & fingerlings

juveniles & growers

Broodfish

Lipid (min %)

8

5

5

Protein (min %)

30

25

30

Calcium (min/max %)

0.8-1.5

0.5-1.8

0.8-1.5

Available Phosphorus (min/max %)

0.6-1.0

0.5-1.0

0.6-1.0

Lysine (min., as % of protein)

6.7

6.4

6.0

Methionine/Cystine (min as % of protein)

4.0

3.6

3.3

DE (kcal/kg)

3 100

2 800

2 800

4 .Tilapias

Most tilapia of the genus Sarotherodon are omnivores, using plankton and detritus as feed, while those of the genus Tilapia utilize coarser food including large algae. The natural food preference of tilapia have been summarized by Jauncey and Ross (1982). A wide range of individual ingredients and simple mixtures of them have been used in the intensive culture of tilapias (Pullin and Lowe-McConnell, 1982), of which rice bran is a primary example. The following specification for compounded tilapia feeds are derived from Jauncey and Ross (1982):

Lipid

10%

(fry to 0.5g)

8%

(0.5-35 g animals)

6%

(35 g - market size)

Protein

50%

(fry to 0.5 g size)

35%

(0.5-35 g animals)

30%

(35 g - market size)

Digestible Carbohydrate

25%

Fibre

8%

(fry to 10g)

8-10%

(10 g - market size)

Lysine Methionine + 50% cystine

4.1 1.7

as % of dietary protein

DE

2 500-3 400 kcal/kg

Other Components

see 'further reading'

Essential Components:

not less than 1% each of n-3 and n-6 series fatty acids

Negative Factors:

rancid fats

5. Shrimp and Prawns

Although the study of shrimp and prawn nutrition is much more recent than that of salmon and trout dietary requirements, knowledge of this topic is increasing rapidly due to the scale and value of shrimp farming world-wide. Dietary requirements appear to vary quite widely, particularly with respect to protein level, from species to species. In general, marine shrimp require high levels of animal protein (particularly marine), whereas freshwater prawns are more omnivorous. Provisional figures for some species are summarized below:

Penaeus japonicus

Penaeus monodon

Penaeus setiferus

Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Lipid %

?

2.5-10.0

3-8

2.5-6.0

Protein %

48-60

35-39

20-32

20-25

Lysine 1/%

9.2

?

?

?

Methionine 1/%

2.7 2/

?

?

?

Other components:

see 'further reading'

Essential Components:

1-2% n-3 series fatty acids, particularly HUFA members of the series; high n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio; marine protein for marine shrimp particularly.

Negative Factors:

excessive cholesterol level; excessive vitamin C; Ca/P ratio >2.0

1/Based on the amino acid profile of mussel flesh (as % of protein). 2/Cystine present.

6. Other Species

6a. European Sea Bass, Sea Breams, Grouper and Yellowtail

The nutritional requirements of the marine members of the super-family Percoidae are less well known than those of other cultured species. Existing knowledge has however, recently been reviewed (New, 1986a). The following is a summary of the requirements of that group of fish:

Component

Species 1/

%

Type of feed 2/

Lipid (% on DM) 3/

Grouper

14

E

Red sea bream

6

C

Yellowtail

15-16

E

Yellowtail

6

C

Gilthead sea bream

8-9

E

Gilthead sea bream

9-11

C

European sea bass

12-13

E

Protein (% on DM) 4/

European sea bass

9-10

C

Grouper

40

E

Red sea bream

52-60

C

Yellowtail

53-57

E

Yellowtail

49-62

C

Gilthead sea bream

40-49

E

Gilthead sea bream

44-55

C

Lysine (% of protein)

European sea bass

40-53

E

European sea bass

50-69

C

Gilthead sea bream

5.0

Methionine (% of protein)

Gilthead sea bream

4.0 (Met + Cyst)

Available

not less than 0.7% as fed

Phosphorous DE

2 700-3 700 kcal/kg

Other Components:

see 'further reading'

Essential Components:

marine proteins; at least 1-2% of n-3 series fatty acids (of C20 and above); carotenoids for red sea bream.

Negative Factors:

as for salmon and trout.

6b. Other Species

Ayu:

Lipid (% on DM) Protein (% on DM)

4-5) 45-53)

Commercial feeds

Sea Bass (Lates calcarifer) and Snapper:

Lipid (% on DM) Protein (% on DM)

13.9 38.7

Experimental feeds (Kanazawa, 1982)

Rabbit Fish:

Lipid (% on DM) Protein (% on DM)

12.5 35.6

Experimental feed (Kanazawa, 1982)

Pacu and Tambaqui:

Protein %

30-33 (fingerlings) 25 (adults)

Experimental feed (ADCP, 1983)

General specifications for warmwater carnivorous species were given by ADCP (1983) as follows:

fry + fingerlings

juveniles + growers

broodfish

Protein (min %)

36

30

36

Calcium (min/max %)

1.0-1.5

1.0-1.5

1.0-1.5

Available Phosphorus (min/max %)

0.5-0.8

0.5-0.8

0.5-0.8

Lysine (min % of protein)

5.6

5.3

5.0

Methionine + Cystine (min 7, of protein)

3.3

3.0

2.8

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2 ulasan:

Tanpa Nama berkata...

apa perbezaan makanan air tawar dengan makanan air masin?

CikGu Naim berkata...

Pertama sekali sebelum pergi kepada makanan, kita perlu tahu perbezaan ikan air masin( marine)dan ikan air tawar.Ikan air masin minum air yang byk ,sementara ikan air tawar tidak,ia berkait rapat dengan osmoregulation dan penghadaman.
Secara ringkas nya makanan ikan air masin kandungan protin nya lebih tinggi berbanding dengan air tawar dan sumber utamanya adalah dari sumber binatang.
Sementara ikan air tawar kebanyakan boleh di rumus daripada sumber tumbuhan.
Bagi makanan ikan air masin pengunaan kanji (carbohydrate)yang byk ,jika tidak berhati hati boleh membengkakan usus ikan terutama bila cara pemakanan sehingga kenyang ( satiation feeding).